The influence of employment program components upon job attainment during a time of identity and career transition

Daniel F. Perkins, Katie E. Davenport, Nicole R. Morgan, Keith R. Aronson, Julia A. Bleser, Kimberly J. McCarthy, Dawne Vogt, Erin P. Finley, Laurel A. Copeland, Cynthia L. Gilman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


This study assessed the effectiveness of employment programs components, which resulted in the identification of content and process components that increase employability. Employment program use was studied among 1172 United States of America military veterans to determine which content (i.e., interviewing skills) and process (i.e., working with a mentor/coach) components influence job attainment during a time of career and identity transition. Components were distilled utilizing a common components analysis approach (Morgan et al., 2018). Associations with finding employment up to 15 months after the military-to-civilian transition were explored. Veterans who engaged with employment programs were primarily accessing the following components: career planning, resume writing, and interviewing skills. However, only a few content components were significantly related to obtaining employment: interviewing (with mentor/coach), resume writing (online tools), translating military to civilian work (with mentor/coach), entrepreneurship (with mentor/coach), and virtual career fairs. Furthermore, not all processes or modes of instruction for content components were associated with success in the job market. Having a mentor/coach was one of the most effective delivery strategies. For example, veterans using programs delivered by a mentor/coach that translated military skills to civilian work were more likely to find a job at 6–9-months (84%) and 12–15-months (91%) post military separation. In addition, risks that predicted lower use of employment program components by veterans were identified such as junior enlisted rank, combat exposure, combat arms occupation, and physical health problems. With these findings, program developers, implementers, and funders can channel efforts towards the utilization of employment programs with effective components.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)695-717
Number of pages23
JournalInternational Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance
Issue number3
StatePublished - Oct 2023


  • Career transition
  • Components
  • Employment
  • Job attainment
  • Military
  • Veterans

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Visual Arts and Performing Arts


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