Glycosaminoglycans specifically regulate the amount of calcium released from bone cultures; the mechanisms responsible for this regulation are not known. Media from glycosaminoglycan-stimulated bone organ cultures were analysed to determine (1) if specific calcium-releasing substances were selectively produced, and (2) if protein synthesis was differentially affected by glycosaminoglycans. Chondroitin sulphate B, hyaluronic acid and keratan sulphate at 100 μg/ml significantly increased prostaglandin release when compared with control cultures. In combination with suboptimal concentrations of PTH, chondroitin sulphate B, heparin and keratan sulphate significantly stimulated prostaglandin release. When indomethacin was included in the test assays, the stimulated prostaglandin release was abolished. Heparin-treated cultures released the greatest percentage of latent collagenase activity followed by hyaluronic acid-treated cultures. Organ cultures treated with heparin and PTH released the greatest amount of active collagenase. Stimulation increased interleukin-1 above control levels but with no significant difference among the glycosaminoglycans except for keratan sulphate cultures with which had the greatest amount of interleukin-1. Collagen protein decreased between 48 and 72 h under both control and experimental conditions. Examination of the predominant [35S]-methionine labelled proteins revealed that prostaglandin E2 treatment resulted in a relative shift in labelling to higher molecular-weight proteins as time in culture increased (up to 144 h). After 48 h, when equal amounts of labelled protein were analysed, there was a predominance in labelling of a 200,000 Da protein in the prostaglandin-treated cultures. These findings demonstrate that modulation of calcium release by glycosaminoglycans results in the selective release of molecules capable of stimulating calcium release. In several cases this release is not specific, suggesting that additional factors play a role in regulating bone resorption.
- DMEM, Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium
- PTH, parathyroid hormone
- r-interleukin, re-combinant interleukin
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology