Objective: To review the imaging features of coronary artery-to-pulmonary artery fistula (CPAF) on CT coronary angiography (CTCA) and evaluate its diagnostic performance compared with coronary catheter angiography (CCA) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed with a diagnosis of CPAF from among 19855 consecutive CCTA performed with 256-slice MDCT scanner for suspected coronary artery disease. CT images were evaluated for – origin, number, size and course (tubular/worm-like dilation/significant aneurysm formation/wall attachment sign) of fistula vessels, drainage site, drainage site imaging features (pierced sign, isodensity sign, smoke sign, jet sign), and main pulmonary artery (MPA) enlargement. 25 patients of CPAF also underwent CCA and 47 patients underwent TTE. Results: There were 72 patients with CPAF (0.36%) in our study, of which 44 were men and 28 were women, with mean age of 55.8 ± 13.2 years (range 22–85 years). CPAF originated from conus artery, left anterior descending artery (LAD), combined conus artery and LAD in 55, 67, 50 cases, respectively. Tubular dilation, worm-like dilation and aneurysm was seen in 14, 58 and 35 cases, respectively. Wall attachment sign was noted in 69 cases. All the cases demonstrated only a single drainage site, with left lateral wall, left anterolateral, anterior, right lateral and right anterolateral walls of MPA in 44, 21, 5, 1 and 1 cases, respectively. The mean diameter of the fistula drainage site was 2.6 ± 1.3 mm. Pierced sign, jet sign, smoke sign, isodensity sign was seen in 72, 46, 41 and 24 cases, respectively. MPA enlargement was seen in 20 patients. CCA showed CPAF in only 20 cases among 25 patients; while TTE showed CPAF in only 9 patients among 47 patients. Conclusion: CTCA is competent in detecting and characterizing CPAF with an excellent diagnostic performance as the first imaging modality of choice, which is valuable for giving a distinct and intuitive explanation to patients and physicians and making an objective and exact assessment for further management.
- Computed tomography coronary angiography
- Conventional catheter angiography
- Coronary artery-to-pulmonary artery fistula
- Transthoracic echocardiogram
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine