Uncontrolled bleeding remains the leading cause of preventable death in trauma. Hemostatic agents are effective in hemorrhage control but often fail following high-volume crystalloid resuscitation. Aggressive fluid resuscitation increases the blood pressure which may dislodge the newly formed clot causing rebleeding. The purpose of this study was to determine the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and the mean arterial pressure (MAP) at which rebleeding occurs when a clot is formed by one of these hemostatic agents (BleedArrest, TraumaDex, or Celox) compared to a control group. This was a prospective, experimental study using male 5 Yorkshire swine per group (BleedArrest, TraumaDex, Celox, or control). The femoral artery and vein were transected to simulate a traumatic injury. Subjects were allowed to bleed for 60 seconds then one of the agents was poured into the wound. The control group underwent the same procedures but without the hemostatic agent. After 30 minutes, dressings were removed and the SBP was increased incrementally using intravenous phenylephrine until rebleeding occurred or until the arterial blood pressure reached 210 mm/Hg. The SBP and MAP were significantly higher in the BleedArrest, TraumaDex, and Celox groups compared to a control group (p < 0.05).
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health