The discriminative stimulus effects of midazolam are resistant to modulation by morphine, amphetamine, dizocilpine, and γ-butyrolactone in rhesus monkeys

Xiang Bai, Charles P. France, Lisa R. Gerak

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Rationale Although abuse of benzodiazepines alone is uncommon, it is high in polydrug abusers, including those who primarily use opioids or stimulants. Objectives This study investigated whether drugs that are abused (e.g., amphetamine) or drugs that have mechanisms of action similar to abused drugs (e.g., morphine) alter the discriminative stimulus effects of the benzodiazepine midazolam. Methods Three rhesus monkeys discriminated 0.56 mg/kg of midazolam while responding under a fixed-ratio 10 schedule of food presentation. Dose-effect curves were determined for midazolam alone and in the presence of morphine (opioid receptor agonist), amphetamine (dopamine receptor indirect agonist), dizocilpine (N-methyl-Daspartic acid receptor antagonist), or γ-butyrolactone (prodrug of ?-hydroxybutyrate, which acts primarily at GABAB receptors).Results Doses of midazolam larger than 0.32 mg/kg produced ≥80% midazolam-lever responding. When administered alone, morphine, amphetamine, dizocilpine, and ?-butyrolactone did not produce midazolam-lever responding, although large doses of each drug eliminated responding; when administered in combination with midazolam, they did not alter the discriminative stimulus effects of midazolam up to doses that markedly decreased response rates. Conclusions The current study demonstrates a lack of modulation of the discriminative stimulus effects of midazolam by morphine, amphetamine, dizocilpine, and γ-butyrolactone. Other effects of benzodiazepines, such as their reinforcing effects, might be altered by these other drugs, or benzodiazepines might modulate the discriminative stimulus or reinforcing effects of the other drugs, which might contribute to the relatively high incidence ofbenzodiazepine abuse among polydrug abusers

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)495-504
Number of pages10
JournalPsychopharmacology
Volume217
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2011

Keywords

  • Drug abuse
  • Drug discrimination
  • Midazolam
  • Monkeys
  • Polydrug abusers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'The discriminative stimulus effects of midazolam are resistant to modulation by morphine, amphetamine, dizocilpine, and γ-butyrolactone in rhesus monkeys'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

  • Cite this