The changing epidemiology of oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients with HIV/AIDS in the era of antiretroviral therapy

Payal K. Patel, Joshua E. Erlandsen, William R. Kirkpatrick, Deborah K. Berg, Steven D. Westbrook, Christopher Louden, John E. Cornell, George R. Thompson, Ana C. Vallor, Brian L. Wickes, Nathan P. Wiederhold, Spencer W. Redding, Thomas F. Patterson

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39 Scopus citations


The impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on opportunistic conditions in HIV patients continues to evolve. We specifically studied the changing epidemiology of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in 215 HIV/AIDS patients. Status of yeast colonization was assessed from oral rinse samples, and preliminary yeast identification was made using CHROMagar Candida and confirmed with standard microbiological techniques and/or molecular sequencing. Susceptibility to fluconazole was determined by CHROMagar Candida agar dilution screening and CLSI broth microdilution. 176 (82%) patients were colonized and 59 (27%) patients had symptomatic OPC. Candida albicans was the most prevalent species, though C. glabrata and C. dubliniensis were detected in 29% of isolates. Decreased fluconazole susceptibility occurred in 10% of isolates. Previous ART reduced the risk of OPC, while smoking increased the risk of colonization. Oral yeast colonization and symptomatic infection remain common even with advances in HIV therapy. C. albicans is the most common species, but other yeasts are prevalent and may have decreased susceptibility to fluconazole.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number262471
JournalAIDS Research and Treatment
Publication statusPublished - Dec 1 2012


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Dermatology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

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