The baboon apolipoprotein E gene: Structure, expression, and linkage with the gene for apolipoprotein C-I

James E. Hixson, Laura A. Cox, Shifra Borenstein

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    39 Scopus citations

    Abstract

    To develop the baboon model for molecular genetic studies of atherosclerosis, we have cloned and sequenced the baboon apolipoprotein E (apo E) gene. The baboon apo E gene encodes the E4 isoform with respect to specific amino acid positions, suggesting that the common ε{lunate}3 allele is not the primal human allele. Rather than accumulating predominantly synonymous nucleotide changes, 50% of substitutions in human and baboon apo E gene coding regions cause amino acid substitutions. However, comparisons of these apo E proteins show conservation of amphipathic helices required for apo E-lipid interactions. The human and baboon apo E genes have diverged less extensively than those from rat and mouse, providing further evidence for a slowing of molecular evolution in primate species. The baboon and rhesus monkey apo E genes (intron 2) contain two Alu repeats that are absent in the human gene, indicating insertion after the divergence of human and cercopithecine lineages, but before the baboon/rhesus divergence. S1 nuclease studies show that transcription of the baboon apo E gene starts at two different positions, one of which corresponds to the human gene start site. To examine linkage of apolipoprotein genes in the baboon genome, we have used a human cDNA probe to detect apo C-I gene sequences approximately 4 kb from the 3′ end of the baboon apo E gene.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)315-323
    Number of pages9
    JournalGenomics
    Volume2
    Issue number4
    DOIs
    StatePublished - May 1988

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Genetics

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