The ability of a cytomegalovirus ELISPOT assay to predict outcome of low-level CMV reactivation in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients

Lynn El Haddad, Ella Ariza-Heredia, Dimpy P Shah, Ying Jiang, Ted Blanchard, Shashank S. Ghantoji, Firas El Chaer, Danielle El-Haddad, Amrita Prayag, Lior Nesher, Katy Rezvani, Elizabeth Shpall, Roy F. Chemaly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients cause substantial morbidity and mortality. CMV cell-mediated immunity (CMV-CMI) can be determined by levels of interferon gamma (IFN-Î 3) production using an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) CMV assay (T-SPOT.CMV assay). In this study, we evaluated the ability of this assay to predict the outcome of low-level CMV reactivation in HCT recipients. Methods We followed 55 HCT recipients with low-level CMV reactivation up to 8 weeks from enrollment. Progression to clinically significant CMV infection (CS-CMVi) was defined as a CMV load >1000 IU/mL or > 500 IU/mL in patients receiving matched related/autologous or matched unrelated transplants, respectively, and initiation of antiviral treatment. Results Progression to CS-CMVi occurred in 31 (56%) of the HCT recipients. Spot counts of CMV-specific pp65 and IE1 antigens were significantly lower in patients who had CS-CMVi than in patients who did not. On multivariate analysis, the ELISPOT CMV responses and steroids use were the only predictors of progression to CS-CMVi. Conclusions A strong association between low CMV-CMI and progression to CS-CMVi was observed in HCT recipients. The implementation of serial monitoring of CMV-CMI may identify patients at risk of progression to CS-CMVi that require antiviral therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)898-907
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Volume219
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 23 2019
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • cell-mediated immunity
  • cytomegalovirus
  • ELISPOT assay
  • hematopoietic stem cell transplant
  • low-level CMV reactivation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases

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