TGF-β2, a protective intestinal cytokine, is abundant in maternal human milk and human-derived fortifiers but not in donor human milk

Aaron A. Reeves, Marney C. Johnson, Margarita M. Vasquez, Akhil Maheshwari, Cynthia L. Blanco

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: This study compared cytokines (in particular transforming growth factor [TGF]-β2) and lactoferrin in maternal human milk (MHM), human-derived milk fortifier (HDMF), and donor human milk (DHM). Materials and Methods: MHM was randomly collected from breastfeeding mothers who had no infectious illness at the time of milk expression. HDMF and DHM were products derived from human milk processed by Holder pasteurization. MHM samples were collected at different times (early/late) and gestations (preterm/term). Lactoferrin was analyzed by western blotting, and cytokines were quantified using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Significance was determined using analysis of variance. Results: In the 164 samples analyzed, TGF-β2 concentrations in HDMF and preterm MHM (at all collection times) were fivefold higher than in DHM (p<0.05). Early preterm MHM had levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-18, 11-fold higher than DHM (p<0.05). IL-6 in DHM was 0.3% of the content found in MHM. IL-18 was fourfold higher in early MHM versus late MHM regardless of gestational age (p<0.05). Lactoferrin concentration in DHM was 6% of that found in MHM. Conclusions: Pasteurization decreases concentrations of most cytokines and lactoferrin in DHM. TGF-β2, a protective intestinal cytokine, has comparable concentrations in HDMF to MHM despite pasteurization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)496-502
Number of pages7
JournalBreastfeeding Medicine
Volume8
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics
  • Health Policy
  • Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • Maternity and Midwifery

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