Terbinafine-Resistant Dermatophytes and the Presence of Trichophyton indotineae in North America

Connie F. Cañete-Gibas, James Mele, Hoja P. Patterson, Carmita J. Sanders, Dora Ferrer, Victor Garcia, Hongxin Fan, Marjorie David, Nathan P. Wiederhold

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Dermatophytes are common causes of skin, hair, and nail infections in humans. The most common species causing infections in humans are Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton interdigitale. Outbreaks of recalcitrant dermatophytosis have been reported in parts of South Asia, including those caused by a hypervirulent and resistant species, Trichophyton indotineae. We evaluated the antifungal susceptibility profiles of dermatophytes received by our laboratory from institutions across North America between 2021 and 2022 and performed species identification for isolates deemed to demonstrate in vitro resistance. Susceptibility testing was performed by CLSI broth microdilution methods, and species identification was performed by DNA sequence analysis. During this 2-year period, 271 dermatophyte isolates were included, the majority of which demonstrated low MIC values for terbinafine (geometric mean [GM] and modal MIC, 0.031 mg/mL and 0.008 mg/mL, respectively) and the azoles itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole (0.035 to 0.049 mg/mL and #0.03 mg/mL). However, 18.6% of the isolates tested were resistant to terbinafine (MIC $ 0.5 mg/mL), including 21 T. rubrum and 21 T. indotineae isolates. These isolates were received from several different states in the United States and two provinces in Canada. In contrast, resistance to itraconazole was relatively rare. We also searched our laboratory database for earlier isolates that were resistant to terbinafine and identified 3 additional T. indotineae isolates, the earliest of which was from 2017. These results demonstrate that terbinafine resistance in dermatophytes was relatively common over this 2-year period and that T. indotineae is present in multiple areas in North America. Continued surveillance is warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of clinical microbiology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2023


  • Trichophyton
  • Trichophyton indotineae
  • Trichophyton rubrum
  • Trichophyton species
  • antifungal resistance
  • dermatophytes
  • terbinafine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)


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