Introduction The spatial and temporal control of stem cell differentiation into odontoblast-like cells remains one of the major challenges in regenerative endodontic procedures. The current study aims to synthesize and compare the effect of dexamethasone (Dex) release from 2 variants of Dex-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CSnp) on the odontogenic differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla (SCAP). Methods Two variants of Dex-loaded CSnp were synthesized by encapsulation (Dex-CSnpI) and adsorption (Dex-CSnpII) methods. The physicochemical characterization of Dex-CSnpI and Dex-CSnpII was assessed by transmission electron microscopy, Zetasizer, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, whereas the Dex release kinetics was assessed by spectrophotometry. A previously characterized SCAP cell line was cultured onto CSnp, Dex-CSnpI, or Dex-CSnpII. The biomineralization potential was determined by alizarin red staining. Alkaline phosphatase, dentin sialophosphoprotein, and dentin matrix protein-1 gene expressions were analyzed by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results Dex-CSnpI resulted in slower release of Dex compared with Dex-CSnpII, but both demonstrated sustained release of Dex for 4 weeks. Biomineralization of SCAP was significantly higher (P <.05) in presence of Dex-CSnpII compared with that in Dex-CSnpI at 3 weeks. Alkaline phosphatase gene expression was significantly higher in the presence of Dex-CSnpII compared with Dex-CSnpI, with peak expression seen at 2 weeks (P <.05). The expression of odontogenic specific marker dentin matrix protein-1 was significantly higher in presence of Dex-CSnpII compared with Dex-CSnpI at 3 weeks (P <.05). Conclusions Collectively, these data suggest that sustained release of Dex results in enhanced odontogenic differentiation of SCAP. These findings highlight the potential of temporal-controlled delivery of bioactive molecules to direct the spatial- and temporal-controlled odontogenic differentiation of dental stem cells.
- Chitosan nanoparticles
- odontogenic differentiation
- stem cells from the apical papilla
- temporal-controlled release
ASJC Scopus subject areas