Techniques for loading technetium-99m and rhenium-186/188 radionuclides into preformed liposomes for diagnostic imaging and radionuclide therapy

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

7 Scopus citations

Abstract

Liposomes can serve as carriers of radionuclides for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. Herein, procedures are outlined for radiolabeling liposomes with the gamma-emitting radionuclide, technetium-99m (99mTc), for noninvasive detection of disease and for monitoring the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of liposomal drugs, and/or with therapeutic beta-emitting radionuclides, rhenium- 186/ 188 (186/188Re), for radionuclide therapy. These efficient and practical liposome radiolabeling methods use a post-labeling mechanism to load 99mTc or 186/188Re into preformed liposomes prepared in advance of the labeling procedure. For all liposome radiolabeling methods described, a lipophilic chelator is used to transport 99mTc or 186/188Re across the lipid bilayer of the preformed liposomes. Once within the liposome interior, the pre-encapsulated glutathione or ammonium sulfate (pH) gradient provides for stable entrapment of the 99mTc and 186/188Re within the liposomes. In the first method, 99mTc is transported across the lipid bilayer by the lipophilic chelator, hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) and 99mTc-HMPAO becomes trapped by interaction with the pre-encapsulated glutathione within the liposomes. In the second method, 99mTc or 186/188Re is transported across the lipid bilayer by the lipophilic chelator, N,N-bis(2-mercaptoethyl)-N’,N’- diethylethylenediamine (BMEDA), and 99mTc-BMEDA or 186/188Re-BMEDA becomes trapped by interaction with pre-encapsulated glutathione within the liposomes. In the third method, an ammonium sulfate (pH) gradient loading technique is employed using liposomes with an extraliposomal pH of 7.4 and an interior pH of 5.1. BMEDA, which is lipophilic at pH 7.4, serves as a lipophilic chelator for 99mTc or 186/188Re to transport the radionuclides across the lipid bilayer. Once within the more acidic liposome interior, 99mTc/186/188Re-BMEDA complex becomes protonated and more hydrophilic, which results in stable entrapment of the 99mTc/186/188Re-BMEDA complex within the liposomes. Since many commercially available liposomal drugs use an ammonium sulfate (pH) gradient for drug loading, these liposomal drugs can be directly radiolabeled with 99mTc-BMEDA for noninvasive monitoring of tissue distribution during treatment or with 186/188Re-BMEDA for combination chemo-radionuclide therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press
Pages155-178
Number of pages24
DOIs
StatePublished - 2017

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
Volume1522
ISSN (Print)1064-3745

Keywords

  • Imaging
  • Liposomes
  • Nanoparticle
  • Nuclear medicine
  • Radiolabeling
  • Radionuclide
  • Radiopharmaceutical
  • Rhenium
  • Technetium-99m
  • Theranostic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics

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