Technical Note: Film-based measurement of gold nanoparticle dose enhancement for 192Ir

Nema Bassiri, Tara Gray, Shaquan David, Devanshi Yogeshkumar Patel, Andrew Locker, Karl Rasmussen, Niko Papanikolaou, Kathryn M. Mayer, Neil Kirby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Purpose: The purpose of this work is to introduce a simple yet accurate technique to measure the dose enhancement factor (DEF) of a citrate-capped gold nanoparticle (GNP) solution using EBT3 film in an 192Ir setup. Methods: Dose enhancement factor is the ratio of absorbed dose in a solution compared to absorbed dose in water, assuming identical irradiation parameters. Citrate-capped GNPs were synthesized. An acrylic apparatus was constructed such that the EBT3 film was placed in charged particle equilibrium within the GNP solution with 0.28%, 0.56%, and 0.77% gold by mass. Sets of 12 dose measurements were collected for each GNP concentration as well as for water. The expected value of DEF was also calculated with the effective mass absorption coefficient of the GNP solution and water for an 192Ir spectrum. Furthermore, Burlin cavity correction factors were calculated and experimentally verified. Experimental verification of the cavity correction was performed by measuring DEF using stacks of 1, 3, and 5 sheets of film and extrapolating the DEF to 0 sheets of film. Results: Experimental cavity corrections agreed with those calculated with the Burlin cavity formalism. The calculated DEF was 1.013, 1.027, and 1.037 for the 0.28%, 0.56%, and 0.77% gold by mass GNP solutions, respectively. The corresponding uncorrected DEF measurement values were 1.013 ± 0.006, 1.024 ± 0.010, and 1.032 ± 0.006, respectively. When applying the Burlin cavity formalism, the final corrected DEF measurement values were 1.016 ± 0.006, 1.029 ± 0.010, and 1.039 ± 0.006, respectively. Conclusions: The experimental cavity correction results agreed with the theoretical Burlin calculations, which allowed for the Burlin corrections to be performed for all GNP concentrations and measured DEF values. The adjusted DEF values agreed with the theoretical calculations. Thus, these results indicate that a Burlin cavity calculation can be applied to correct film-based DEF measurements for 192Ir.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)260-266
Number of pages7
JournalMedical physics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020


  • burlin cavity theory
  • dose enhancement
  • gold nanoparticles

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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