Survival and kidney outcomes of children with an early diagnosis of posterior urethral valves

Katherine W. Herbst, Paul Tomlinson, Gina Lockwood, Maua H. Mosha, Zhu Wang, Cynthia D’alessandri-Silva

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background and objectives Posterior urethral valve is the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in infants. We aimed to describe the rate and timing of kidney-related and survival outcomes for children diagnosed with posterior urethral valves in United States children’s hospitals using the Pediatric Health Information System database. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This retrospective cohort study included children hospitalized between January 1, 1992 and December 31, 2006, who were in their first year of life, had a diagnosis of congenital urethral stenosis, and underwent endoscopic valve ablation or urinary drainage intervention, or died. Records were searched up to December 31, 2018 for kidney-related mortality, placement of a dialysis catheter, and kidney transplantation. Cox regression analysis was used to identify risk factors, and Kaplan–Meier survival analysis used to determine time-to-event probability. Subgroup survival analysis was performed with outcomes stratified by the strongest identified risk factor. Results Included were 685 children hospitalized at a median age of 7 (interquartile range, 1–37) days. Thirty four children (5%) died, over half during their initial hospitalization. Pulmonary hypoplasia was the strongest risk factor for death (hazard ratio, 7.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.3 to 17.0). Ten-year survival probability was 94%. Fifty-nine children (9%) underwent one or more dialysis catheter placements. Children with kidney dysplasia had over four-fold risk of dialysis catheter placement (hazard ratio, 4.6; 95% CI, 2.6 to 8.1). Thirty-six (7%) children underwent kidney transplant at a median age of 3 (interquartile range, 2–8) years. Kidney dysplasia had a nine-fold higher risk of kidney transplant (hazard ratio, 9.5; 95% CI, 4.1 to 22.2). Conclusions Patients in this multicenter cohort with posterior urethral valves had a 5% risk of death, and were most likely to die during their initial hospitalization. Risk of death was higher with a diagnosis of pulmonary hypoplasia. Kidney dysplasia was associated with a higher risk of need for dialysis/transplant.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1572-1580
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 7 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation


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