Enzymes with tightly bound FMN or FAD as cofactor catalyze the oxidation of a wide range of substrates. The chemical versatility of the isoalloxazine ring provides these enzymes with a range of potential mechanisms. Recent progress in elucidating the mechanisms of oxidation of organic substrates by flavoenzymes is described, focusing on the oxidation of alcohols, amino and hydroxy acids, amines, and nitroalkanes. With each family of enzymes, an attempt is made to integrate mechanistic, structural, and biomimetic data into a common catalytic mechanism.
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