Subdiaphragmatic stage I and II Hodgkin's disease: Long-term follow-up and prognostic factors

Zhongxing Liao, Chul S. Ha, Lillian M. Fuller, Fredrick B. Hagemeister, Fernando Cabanillas, Susan L. Tucker, Mark A. Hess, James D. Cox

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


Purpose: To report long-term follow-up results and to analyze prognostic factors for overall and disease-free survival in patients with subdiaphragmatic Stage I and II Hodgkin's disease. Methods and Materials: From September 1962 to April 1995, 109 patients presented at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center with subdiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease. The medical records of these patients were retrospectively reviewed; 22 patients who received no treatment at the M.D. Anderson Cancer Center or who had radiation therapy at other institutions were excluded. The remaining 87 patients formed the basis of this study. The median age of our group was 33 years with a male: female ratio of 3.3:1. The histological subtypes were nodular sclerosis in 21 (24.1%) patients, mixed cellularity in 31 (35.6%), lymphocyte predominance in 33 (37.9%), lymphocyte depletion in 1 (1.1%) and unclassified histology in 1 (1.1%). Of the patients, 32 (36.8%) underwent laparotomy for diagnosis or staging purpose, 74 (85.1%) had lymphangiography, and 35 (40.2 %) had computerized tomography of the abdomen and pelvis. Among the patients, 22 (25%) had more than three sites of nodal involvement at presentation, 56 (64.4%) had pelvic or abdominal disease, and 14 (18.4%) had bulky disease that was defined as disease with the largest dimension ≤ 7 cm. Stage distribution was IA in 33.3%, IIA in 39.1%, and IIB in 27.6%. Treatment was radiotherapy alone in 60 (69%) patients, chemotherapy and radiation in 23 (26.4%), and chemotherapy alone in 4 (4.6%). Results: The 10- and 20-year actuarial overall survival rates for all patients were 74.6% and 55.3%, and the corresponding disease-free survival rates were 72.4% and 67.5%, respectively. On univariate analysis, age > 40 years, B symptoms, nodular sclerosis or mixed cellularity histology, and decreased albumin or hemoglobin levels were statistically significant adverse pretreatment factors for overall survival. B symptoms, decreased albumin level, more than 3 sites of disease at presentation, and Stage H were statistically significant negative pretreatment prognostic factors for disease-free survival. Only B symptoms and decreased albumin level predicted worse outcome in both overall and disease-free survivals. On multivariate analysis, age > 40 years, nodular sclerosis and mixed cellularity histology, and decreased hemoglobin levels were three independent risk factors for overall survival. An analysis of the pattern of failure revealed that the majority of the patients with central Stage H disease who did not receive mantle radiation failed in the supradiaphragmatic area. Late complications of radiation were infrequent. Conclusions: Long-term follow-up of this group of patients revealed similar overall and disease-free long-term survival, as would be expected from supradiaphragmatic Hodgkin's disease. For patients with central Stage H disease, it is anticipated that supradiaphragmatic radiation therapy would improve the disease-free survival.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1047-1056
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jul 15 1998


  • Chemotherapy
  • Combined modality
  • Hodgkin's disease
  • Infradiaphragmatic
  • Late complications
  • Prognostic factors
  • Radiation therapy
  • Subdiaphragmatic

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiation
  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research


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