Daily afternoon (at 7 p.m.) injections of melatonin (25 μg in oil) into adult male hamsters for 50 days led to atrophy of the testes and accessory sex organs (seminal vesicles and coagulating glands) and in a significant depression in pituitary LH and prolactin content and concentration. These actions of melatonin were prevented if the animals had been pinealectomized before the daily melatonin injections were begun. Likewise, if hamsters received a weekly subcutaneous implant of melatonin in beeswax (1 mg melatonin in 24 mg beeswax) the daily melatonin injections failed to inhibit the growth of the reproductive organs and to depress pituitary LH and prolactin levels. Beeswax by itself had no such effect.
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