Stop the Bleed Training: Rescuer Skills, Knowledge, and Attitudes of Hemorrhage Control Techniques

Rebecca Schroll, Alison Smith, Morgan S. Martin, Tyler Zeoli, Marcus Hoof, Juan Duchesne, Patrick Greiffenstein, Jennifer Avegno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background: Bystanders play a significant role in the immediate management of life-threatening hemorrhage. The Stop the Bleed (STB) program was designed to train lay rescuers (LRs) to identify and control life-threatening bleeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of STB training for rescuers from different backgrounds. We hypothesized that STB training would be appropriate to increase skills and knowledge of bleeding control techniques for all providers, regardless of level of medical training. Study design: Course participants anonymously self-reported confidence in six major areas. A five-point Likert scale was used to quantitate participant's self-reported performance. Results were stratified into medical rescuers (MR) and LRs. Students' ability to perform STB skills were objectively assessed using an internally validated 15-point objective assessment tool. Data were pooled and analyzed using Student's t-test and chi-Squared test with P < 0.05 considered significant. Results are presented as average with standard deviation (SD) unless otherwise stated. Results: A total of 1974 participants were included in the study. Precourse confidence was lowest for both groups in management of active severe bleeding and ability to pack a bleeding wound. Postcourse confidence improved significantly for both groups in all 6 core areas measured (P < 0.001). The most significant increases were reported in the two previous areas of lowest precourse confidence-management of active severe bleeding—LRs 2.0 (SD 1.2) versus 4.2 (SD 0.9) and MRs 2.6 (SD 1.4) versus 4.6 (SD 0.6), P < 0.001—and ability to pack a bleeding wound—LR 2.1 (SD 1.3) versus 4.4 (SD 0.8) and MR 2.7 (SD 1.3) versus 4.7 (SD 0.05), P < 0.001. Objective assessment of LR skills at the end of the course demonstrated combined 99.3% proficiency on postcourse objective assessments. Conclusions: This study provides quantitative evidence that Stop the Bleed training is effective, with both LRs and MRs demonstrating improved confidence and skill proficiency after a 1-h course. Future program development should focus on building a pool of instructors, continued training of LRs, and determining how often skills should be recertified.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)636-642
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
StatePublished - Jan 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Education
  • Hemorrhage control
  • Lay rescuers
  • Mass casualty
  • Mass shootings

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


Dive into the research topics of 'Stop the Bleed Training: Rescuer Skills, Knowledge, and Attitudes of Hemorrhage Control Techniques'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this