Stereotactic Radiosurgery for A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations- Eligible Patients: A Meta-Analysis

Adeel Ilyas, Ching Jen Chen, Isaac Josh Abecassis, Fadi Al-Saiegh, Natasha Ironside, Pascal M. Jabbour, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, M. Reid Gooch, Cheng Chia Lee, Jason P. Sheehan, Dale Ding

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: The outcomes of A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations (ARUBA) were controversial, and they suggested that intervention is inferior to medical management for unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). However, several studies have shown that stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an acceptable therapy for unruptured AVMs. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that ARUBA intervention arm's SRS results are meaningfully inferior to those from similar populations reported by other studies. METHODS: We performed a literature review to identify SRS studies of patients who met the eligibility criteria for ARUBA. Patient, AVM, treatment, and outcome data were extracted for statistical analysis. Regression analyses were pooled to identify factors associated with post-SRS obliteration and hemorrhage. RESULTS: The study cohort included 8 studies comprising 1620 ARUBA-eligible patients who underwent SRS. At the time of AVM diagnosis, 36% of patients were asymptomatic. The mean follow-up duration was 80 months. Rates of radiologic, symptomatic, and permanent radiation-induced changes were 45%, 11%, and 2%, respectively. The obliteration rate was 68% at last follow-up. The post-SRS hemorrhage and mortality rates were 8%, and 2%, respectively. Lower Spetzler-Martin grade (odds ratios [OR] = 0.84 [0.74-0.95], P =.005), lower radiosurgery-based AVM score (OR = 0.75 [0.64-0.95], P =.011), lower Virginia Radiosurgery AVM Scale (OR = 0.86 [0.78-0.95], P =.003), and higher margin dose (OR = 1.13 [1.02-1.25], P =.025) were associated with obliteration. CONCLUSION: SRS carries a favorable risk to benefit profile for appropriately selected ARUBA-eligible patients, particularly those with smaller volume AVMs. Our findings suggest that the results of ARUBA do not reflect the real-world safety and efficacy of SRS for unruptured AVMs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)684-692
Number of pages9
Issue number5
StatePublished - Nov 1 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Brain arteriovenous malformation
  • Intracranial hemorrhages
  • Intracranial vascular malformations
  • Radiosurgery
  • Stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Surgery


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