Standardized method for in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida albicans biofilms

G. Ramage, K. Vande Walle, B. L. Wickes, J. L. López-Ribot

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

605 Scopus citations


Candida albicans is implicated in many biomaterial-related infections. Typically, these infections are associated with biofilm formation. Cells in biofilms display phenotypic traits that are dramatically different from those of their free-floating planktonic counterparts and are notoriously resistant to antimicrobial agents. Consequently, biofilm-related infections are inherently difficult to treat and to fully eradicate with normal treatment regimens. Here, we report a rapid and highly reproducible microtiter-based colorimetric assay for the susceptibility testing of fungal biofilms, based on the measurement of metabolic activities of the sessile cells by using a formazan salt reduction assay. The assay was used for in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of several C. albicans strains grown as biofilms against amphotericin B and fluconazole and the increased resistance of C. albicans biofilms against these antifungal agents was demonstrated. Because of its simplicity, compatibility with a widely available 96-well microplate platform, high throughput, and automation potential, we believe this assay represents a promising tool for the standardization of in vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of fungal biofilms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2475-2479
Number of pages5
JournalAntimicrobial agents and chemotherapy
Issue number9
StatePublished - 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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