Spermatic Vein Occlusion with Hot Contrast Material: Angiographic Results

David W. Hunter, N. Judge King, Dorothy M. Aeppli, Joseph W. Yedlicka, Wilfrido R. Castaneda-Zuniga, John C. Hulbert, Keith Kaye, Kurt Amplatz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Spermatic vein occlusion by means of selective injection of boiling contrast material into the spermatic vein was attempted in 175 men with symptomatic varicoceles or infertility. Seventy-six patients (43%) returned for follow-up venography. Of 115 veins injected, 96 (83%) were totally occluded on the follow-up venogram obtained at 6 weeks to 2 years after injection. In the latter portion of the study, the technique was changed slightly, with injection of larger volumes of hot contrast material, resulting in a 91% occlusion rate. Each vein that was found patent on the follow-up venogram (19 of 115 [16%]) was assessed radiographically, and results were categorized as grade 1, a complete failure in which there was no change from the prescle-rotherapy appearance (nine of 19 [47%]); grade 2, a failure in which the treated vein was smaller but patent (five of 19 [26%]); or grade 3, a failure in which the treated vein was occluded with newly developed collateral vessels (five of 19 [26%]). The pretreatment size of the spermatic vein and the quantity of hot contrast material injected were both statistically significant factors in the treatment outcome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)507-515
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1991
Externally publishedYes


  • Infertility
  • VQI
  • VSI
  • Varicocele, 969.753
  • Veins, spermatic, 969.753
  • Veins, therapeutic blockade, 969.1299
  • Vol/VSI
  • ratio of the volume of hot contrast material to the vein size index
  • vein quantity index
  • vein size index

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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