Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) accounts for about half of individuals entering end-stage renal disease programs. Patients with DKD frequently have associated microvascular complications and are at very high risk for developing macrovascular complications. Comprehensive treatment involves slowing or preventing the decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and preventing macrovascular and further microvascular complications. Maintaining an A1C <6.5% represents primary prevention; in established DKD, tight blood pressure control is essential. ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors can be used in combination to slow the rate of decline in GFR. This article reviews the general approach to DKD treatment and summarizes renal outcomes in four cardiovascular outcomes trials of SGLT2 inhibitors. Together, these trials provide conclusive evidence that SGLT2 inhibitors, added to an ACE inhibitor or ARB, slow the progression of DKD.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism