In addition to its central role in the development of microvascular complications, hyperglycemia plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, i.e. glucotoxicity. Thus, effective glycemic control not only reduces the incidence of microvascular complications, but also corrects the metabolic abnormalities that contribute to the progression of the disease. Progressive beta-cell failure and side effects associated with therapy, such as hypoglycemia and weight gain, present obstacles to the achievement of optimal durable glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Most recently, inhibitors of the renal sodium glucose co-transporter have been developed to produce glucosuria and reduce the plasma glucose concentration. Because the mechanism of action of these oral antidiabetic agents is independent of beta-cell and tissue sensitivity to insulin, they improve glycemic control while avoiding hypoglycemia and promoting weight loss. In this article, we will summarize the available data concerning the mechanism of action, efficacy, and safety of this novel antidiabetic therapeutic approach.
- Sodium-glucose co-transport
- Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition
- Type 2 diabetes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism