Sociodemographic and clinical correlates of P-A-I-N

Raymond M. Costello, Lawrence S. Schoenfeld, Somayaji Ramamurthy, Brittania Hobbs-Hardee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Rules to clarify MMPI profiles into four types (P-A-I-N) observed commonly in chronic pain patient populations were tested to determine if resulting average profiles matched computer-algorithm derived prototypes. Close matches were obtained, suggeting that the rules could be used in the ordinary pain clinic setting to look for type x treatment interactions. Seven clinical variables differentiated the types. Type P and N were most different from one another, and Types A and I represented poles on an optimism-pessimism dimension.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)315-321
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Psychosomatic Research
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1989

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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