Single Rescuer Ventilation Using a Bag Valve Mask with Removable External Handle: A Randomized Crossover Trial

Paul Reed, Baruch Zobrist, Monica Casmaer, Steven G. Schauer, Nurani Kester, Michael D. April, P. Reed, B. Zobrist, M. Casmaer, Sg Schauer, N. Kester, M. April

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Introduction Ventilation with a bag valve mask (BVM) is a challenging but critical skill for airway management in the prehospital setting. Hypothesis Tidal volumes received during single rescuer ventilation with a modified BVM with supplemental external handle will be higher than those delivered using a standard BVM among health care volunteers in a manikin model. Methods This study was a randomized crossover trial of adult health care providers performing ventilation on a manikin. Investigators randomized participants to perform single rescuer ventilation, first using either a BVM modified by addition of a supplemental external handle or a standard unmodified BVM (Spur II BVM device; Ambu; Ballerup, Denmark). Participants performed mask placement and delivery of 10 breaths per minute for three minutes, as guided by a metronome. After a three-minute rest period, they performed ventilation using the alternative device. The primary outcome measure was mean received tidal volume as measured by the manikin (IngMar RespiTrainer model; IngMar Medical; Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania USA). Secondary outcomes included subject device preference. Results Of 70 recruited participants, all completed the study. The difference in mean received tidal volume between ventilations performed using the modified BVM with external handle versus standard BVM was 20 ml (95% CI,-16 to 56 ml; P=.28). There were no significant differences in mean received tidal volume based on the order of study arm allocation. The proportion of participants preferring the modified BVM over the standard BVM was 47.1% (95% CI, 35.7 to 58.6%). Conclusions The modified BVM with added external handle did not result in greater mean received tidal volume compared to standard BVM during single rescuer ventilation in a manikin model. Reed P, Zobrist B, Casmaer M, Schauer SG, Kester N, April MD.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)625-630
Number of pages6
JournalPrehospital and Disaster Medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Ventilation
  • apnea
  • manikin
  • masks
  • resuscitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Emergency


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