Shaping reduced smoking in smokers without cessation plans

R. J. Lamb, G. Galbicka, A. R. Mortal, Kimberly C. Kirby, M. Y. Iguchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Most smokers do not plan to quit in the next 6 months. The authors previously demonstrated that percentile schedules shape lower breath carbon monoxide (BCO) levels in smokers trying to quit (R. J. Lamb, A. R. Morral, K. C. Kirby, M. Y. Iguchi, & G. Galbicka, 2004). In that study, the authors set reinforcement criteria based on the 9 most recent samples. In this study, the authors examined whether a more responsive procedure using the 4 most recent samples is more effective in smokers not trying to quit. Following institution of the contingencies in both groups, BCO levels were substantially reduced, and readiness to quit and cessation self-efficacy increased. However, more individuals in the 4-sample window group achieved a BCO level below 4 ppm, indicating recent abstinence. These individuals did so more rapidly and for a greater number of visits.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)83-92
Number of pages10
JournalExperimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 2005


  • Contingency management
  • Readiness to change
  • Self-efficacy
  • Shaping
  • Smoking cessation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Pharmacology


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