Background: Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are at risk for both thromboembolic and bleeding complications. While the risk for thromboembolism is higher among women with AF than men, the sex-related differences in post-discharge outcomes after hospitalization is not clearly understood. Hypothesis: Compared to men, women hospitalized for AF are at a higher risk of both thromboembolic and bleeding complications. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the 2013 to 2014 Nationwide Readmission Database (NRD), to compare outcomes among men and women, ≥50 years of age after hospitalization for AF. The primary patient outcome was all-cause rehospitalization at 90-days after initial hospitalization. Survey-weighted Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for bleeding events at 30, 60, 90, and 270 days after hospitalization. Results: From the 28 million patients in the NRD, we identified 522 521 individuals with an index hospitalization for AF. Compared to men, women hospitalized for AF accounted for 53.3% of the cohort and had higher rates of thrombotic (1.7%, 1.4%) and bleeding complications (1.4%, 1.1%). After adjustment, the 90-day risk among women vs men was significantly greater; all-cause rehospitalization (24.2%, 17.0%; HR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.05-1.09), rehospitalization related to ischemic stroke (0.6%, 0.3%; HR 1.31, 95% CI = 1.14-1.51), pulmonary embolism (0.4%, 0.2%; HR 1.21, 95% CI = 1.01-1.45), and any thrombotic event (1.3%, 0.7%; HR 1.20, 95% CI = 1.09-1.32). Conclusions: Hospitalization for AF is common and frequently associated with both in-hospital complications and readmission, which were more commonly observed among women with AF. Further research into epidemiological factors and treatment differences between men and women with AF is warranted.
- atrial fibrillation
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine