Background: An inverse relationship between serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels and body mass index (BMI) has been reported in men but not in any animal model. METHODS Serum PSA in a colony of cynomolgus monkeys was assayed and correlated to body weight, prostate weight, and age. In addition, 15 animals were selected and fed a high sugar high fat (HSHF) diet for 49 weeks to increase their BMI and correlate it to PSA Results: Serum PSA levels were positively correlated to prostate weight (r=0.515, P=0.025) and age (r=0.548, P=0.00072) but was not significantly correlated to body weight (r=-0.032, P=0.419). For the animals on the HSHF diet, body weight, lean mass, fat mass, and BMI were significantly higher at 49 weeks than at baseline (P<0.01). PSA was not significantly correlated to body weight and insulin at both baseline and 49 weeks. PSA was negatively correlated to BMI and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) at 49 weeks but not at baseline. In addition, we observed hepatic steatosis and increases in serum liver enzymes. Conclusions: Increases in BMI in cynomolgus monkeys as a result of consuming a HSHF diet resulted in PSA changes similar to those in humans with increased BMI. Cynomolgus monkeys are a useful model for investigating the relationship between obesity, diabetes, and PSA changes resulting from prostate gland pathology.
- insulin resistance
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