Purpose: To determine the safety and toxicities of sequential MMC (mitomycin C) + BCG (bacillus Calmette-Guérin) in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and explore evidence for potentiation of BCG activity by MMC. Experimental Design: A 3 + 3 phase I dose-escalation trial of six weekly treatments was conducted in patients with NMIBC. MMC (10, 20, or 40 mg) was instilled intravesically for 30 minutes, followed by a 10-minute washout with gentle saline irrigation and then instillation of BCG (half or full strength) for 2 hours. Urine cytokines were monitored and compared with levels in a control cohort receiving BCG only. Murine experiments were carried out as described previously. Results: Twelve patients completed therapy, including 3 patients receiving full doses. The regimen was well tolerated with no treatment-related dose-limiting toxicities. Urinary frequency and urgency, and fatigue were common. Eleven (91.7%) patients were free of disease at a mean (range) follow- up of 21.4 (8.4-27.0) months. Median posttreatment urine concentrations of IL2, IL8, IL10, and TNFa increased over the 6-week treatment period. A greater increase in posttreatment urinary IL8 during the 6-week period was observed in patients receiving MMC + BCG compared with patients receiving BCG monotherapy. In mice, intravesical MMC + BCG skewed tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) toward a beneficial M1 phenotype. Conclusions: Instillation of sequential MMC + BCG is safe tolerable up to 40-mg MMC plus full-strength BCG. This approach could provide improved antitumor activity over BCG monotherapy by augmenting beneficial M1 TAMs.
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