Semen Analysis, Male InfertiLity, and Male Contraception

J. B. Lin, D. Troyer

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


This article discusses male fertiLity issues including diagnostic infertiLity workup and research and development of male contraceptives. We will go over the steps of a systemic histological evaluation of the testicular biopsy for infertiLity and the methods of evaluating germ cell elements and spermatogenesis. We will discuss different histological findings of a testicular biopsy including normal, hypospermatogenesis, germ cell maturation arrest, SertoLi cell-only syndrome, seminiferous tubule hyaLinization, intratubular germ cell neoplasia or carcinoma, and immature testis. We, then, will discuss various laboratory tests used to evaluate infertiLity such as semen analysis and hormonal evaluation. Finally, we will discuss male contraceptives including hormonal and nonhormonal agents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPathobiology of Human Disease
Subtitle of host publicationA Dynamic Encyclopedia of Disease Mechanisms
PublisherElsevier Inc.
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9780123864567
ISBN (Print)9780123864574
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Germ cell maturation arrest (GCA)
  • Hormonal evaluation
  • Hormonal male contraception
  • Human fertiLity diagnosis
  • Human male infertiLity
  • Human testis fertiLity/infertiLity
  • Hypospermatogenesis
  • Laboratory evaluation
  • Nonhormonal male contraception
  • Other tests
  • SertoLi cell-only syndrome (SCOS)
  • Testicular biopsy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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