Seizure characterization and electroencephalographic features in Glut-1 deficiency syndrome

Linda D. Leary, Dong Wang, Douglas R. Nordli, Kristin Engelstad, Darryl C. De Vivo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

120 Scopus citations


Purpose: To characterize seizure types and electroencephalographic features of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut-1 DS). Methods: Twenty children with clinical and laboratory features of Glut-1 DS were evaluated. Age at seizure diagnosis, seizure classification, and response to treatment were determined by chart review. Thirty-two continuous 24-h EEG monitoring sessions and reports of 42 routine EEG studies were assessed. Results: Age at seizure diagnosis was between 4 weeks and 18 months (mean, 5 months). Seizure types were generalized tonic or clonic (14), absence (10), partial (nine), myoclonic (six), or astatic (four). During 24-h EEGs, background activity showed generalized 2.5- to 4-Hz spike-wave discharges (41%), generalized slowing or attenuation (34%), no abnormalities (34%), focal epileptiform discharges (13%), or focal slowing or attenuation (9%). No seizures were captured during 69% of the studies; the remainder had absence (19%), myoclonic (9%), or partial seizures (3%). On evaluation of routine and 24-h EEG studies, focal epileptiform discharges (24%) and slowing (11%) were more frequent in ages 0-24 months. In older children (2-8 years), generalized epileptiform discharges (37.5%) and slowing (21%) were more common. Conclusions: In all ages, a normal interictal EEG was the most common EEG finding. When abnormalities occurred, focal slowing or epileptiform discharges were more prevalent in the infant. In older children (2 years or older), a generalized 2.5- to 4-Hz spike-wave pattern emerged. Seizure types observed included, absence, myoclonic, partial, and astatic.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)701-707
Number of pages7
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 1 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Electroencephalogram
  • Epilepsy
  • Glut-1 deficiency syndrome
  • Hypoglycorrhachia
  • Infant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology


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