Although autologous hematopoietic SCT (auto-HSCT) is the only potentially curative treatment for lymphoma that has relapsed after conventional chemotherapy, the prognosis of patients with disease recurrence after auto-HSCT is poor. Some highly selected patients can benefit from second transplants. One-third with late recurrence after initial auto-HSCT may attain a prolonged remission after second auto-HSCT. Non-myeloablative or reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (allo-HSCT) has been used successfully after auto-HSCT failures, especially in subjects who have an HLA-compatible donor, chemosensitive disease and good performance status. Patients with chemosenstive disease recurrence who have completed at least 1 year after their first auto-HSCT should be considered for a second auto-HSCT. Patients who have chemoresistant disease are best served by participation in a well-designed clinical trial examining novel antitumor agents.
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