Schistosomiasis is a major cause of morbidity in the world; it is second only to malaria as a major infectious disease. Globally, it is estimated that the disease affects over 250 million people in 78 countries of the world and is responsible for some 280,000 deaths each year. The three major schistosomes infecting humans are Schistosoma mansoni, S. japonicum, and S. haematobium. This chapter covers a wide range of aspects of schistosomiasis, including basic biology of the parasites, epidemiology, immunopathology, treatment, control, vaccines, and genomics/proteomics. In this chapter, the reader will understand the significant toll this disease takes in terms of mortality and morbidity. A description of the various life stages of schistosomes is presented, which will be informative for both those unfamiliar with the disease and experienced scientists. Clinical and public health aspects are addressed that cover acute and chronic disease, diagnosis, current treatment regimens and alternative drugs, and schistosomiasis control programs. A brief overview of genomics and proteomics is included that details recent advances in the field that will help scientists investigate the molecular biology of schistosomes. The reader will take away an appreciation for general aspects of schistosomiasis and research advances.