Safety Assessment of Citric Acid, Inorganic Citrate Salts, and Alkyl Citrate Esters as Used in Cosmetics

Monice M. Fiume, Bart A. Heldreth, Wilma F. Bergfeld, Donald V. Belsito, Ronald A. Hill, Curtis D. Klaassen, Daniel C. Liebler, James G. Marks, Ronald C. Shank, Thomas J. Slaga, Paul W. Snyder, F. Alan Andersen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations

Abstract

The CIR Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of citric acid, 12 inorganic citrate salts, and 20 alkyl citrate esters as used in cosmetics, concluding that these ingredients are safe in the present practices of use and concentration. Citric acid is reported to function as a pH adjuster, chelating agent, or fragrance ingredient. Some of the salts are also reported to function as chelating agents, and a number of the citrates are reported to function as skin-conditioning agents but other functions are also reported. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, but because citric acid, calcium citrate, ferric citrate, manganese citrate, potassium citrate, sodium citrate, diammonium citrate, isopropyl citrate, stearyl citrate, and triethyl citrate are generally recognized as safe direct food additives, dermal exposure was the focus for these ingredients in this cosmetic ingredient safety assessment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)16S-46S
JournalInternational journal of toxicology
Volume33
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2014
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • alkyl citrate esters
  • citric acid
  • cosmetics
  • inorganic citrate salts
  • safety

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

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