Oxidant stress influences many cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and cell death. A well-recognized link between these processes and oxidant stress is via alterations in Ca2+ signaling. However, precisely how oxidants influence Ca2+ signaling remains unclear. Oxidant stress led to a phenotypic shift in Ca2+ mobilization from an oscillatory to a sustained elevated pattern via calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC)-mediated capacitive Ca2+ entry, and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1)- and Orai1-deficient cells are resistant to oxidant stress. Functionally, oxidant-induced Ca2+ entry alters mitochondrial Ca2+ handling and bioenergetics and triggers cell death. STIM1 is S-glutathionylated at cysteine 56 in response to oxidant stress and evokes constitutive Ca2+ entry independent of intracellular Ca2+ stores. These experiments reveal that cysteine 56 is a sensor for oxidant-dependent activation of STIM1 and demonstrate a molecular link between oxidant stress and Ca2+ signaling via the CRAC channel.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology