Role of Three-Dimensional Visualization Modalities in Medical Education

Ivy Bui, Arunabh Bhattacharya, Si Hui Wong, Harinder R. Singh, Arpit Agarwal

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


For the past two decades, slide-based presentation has been the method of content delivery in medical education. In recent years, other teaching modalities involving three-dimensional (3D) visualization such as 3D printed anatomical models, virtual reality (VR), and augmented reality (AR) have been explored to augment the education experience. This review article will analyze the use of slide-based presentation, 3D printed anatomical models, AR, and VR technologies in medical education, including their benefits and limitations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number760363
JournalFrontiers in Pediatrics
StatePublished - Dec 7 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • augmented reality
  • medical education
  • slide-based presentation
  • three-dimensional printing
  • virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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