To test the hypothesis that hyaline membrane disease (HMD) has a multifactorial etiology in which barotrauma plays a major role, we compared the immediate institution of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV; 15 Hz, n = 5) with positive-pressure ventilation with positive end-expiratory pressure (PPV; n = 5) in premature baboons (140-days gestation) with HMD. Measurements of ventilation settings and physiological parameters were obtained and arterial-to-alveolar O2 (Pa(O2)-to-PA(O2)) ratio and oxygenation index [(Pa(O2/PA(O2))-to-mean airway pressure ratio (IO2)] were calculated. At death (24 h), static pressure-volume (PV) curves were performed, and phospholipids (PL) and platelet-activating factor (PAF) were measured in lung lavage fluid. Morphological inflation patterns were analyzed using a panel of standards. By design, mean airway pressure was initially higher (19 vs. 13 cmH2O) in the HFOV animals. Pa(O2)-to-PA(O2) ratio and IO2 progressively deteriorated in the PPV animals and then stabilized at significantly lower levels than with HFOV. PV curves from HFOV animals had significant increases in lung volume at maximum distending pressure, deflation volume at 10 cmH2O, and hysteresis area compared with PPV, which showed no hysteresis. Seven of seven PPV and only one of five HFOV animals had moprhological findings of HMD. PL amount and composition in both groups were consistent with immaturity, even though the quantity was significantly greater in the PPV group. PAF was present (≥ 0.10 pmol) in six of seven PPV and in the only HFOV animal with HMD. We conclude that HFOV protected PL-deficient premature baboons from changes in gas exchange, lung mechanics, and morphology typical of HMD in this model. These differences were independent of changes in PL, but the development of HMD was associated with the presence of PAF. The pathogenesis of HMD is complex and is in part related to additive lung injury.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physiology (medical)