This review addresses the role of lipids and membranes in biologic calcification and examines their regulation during endochondral ossification. The close association of lipids with mineral deposition has been well established. Early observations indicated that lipids, particularly phospholipids, can not be totally extracted from calcified tissues until the tissues are decalcified. Phospholipids associated with mineral are also enriched in extracellular membrane vesicles, called matrix vesicles. Numerous studies indicate that mineral deposits in calcifying cartilage are first seen in these phosphatidylserine and alkaline phosphatase enriched vesicles and that the process of endochondral calcification of epiphyseal growth plate is possibly mediated by them. Matrix vesicles, and the phospholipids present in them, appear to be involved in initial formation of calcium hydroxyapatite crystals via the interaction of calcium and phosphate ions with phosphatidylserine to form phospholipid:Ca:Pi complexes (CPLX). CPLX is present in tissues which are undergoing initial mineral deposition but are absent from nonmineralizing tissues. Evidence suggests that CPLX resides in the interior of matrix vesicles where the earliest mineral crystals are formed in association with the vesicle membrane. More recently, it has been determined that specific membrane proteins, called proteolipids, participate in CPLX formation and hydroxyapatite deposition, in part by structuring phosphatidylserine in an appropriate conformation. Phosphatidylserine involvement in the initiation of mineralization has been extensively investigated because of its extremely high binding affinity for Ca2+. In addition to structuring a specific phospholipid environment, proteolipids may also act as ionophores, promoting export of protons and import of calcium and phosphate, both requirements of biologic calcification. In cartilage, enzyme activity, phospholipid and CPLX content and composition, and ability of proteolipids to support in vitro hydroxyapatite formation, are all part of the initial calcification cascade and are regulated by metabolites of vitamin D.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)