Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) is a highly effective treatment for bleeding esophageal varices, with control of the bleeding in over 90% of the patients. TIPS is recommended as "rescue" treatment if primary hemostasis cannot be obtained with endoscopic and pharmacological therapy, or if uncontrollable early rebleeding occurs within 48 hours. TIPS is also a very effective technique for patients presenting with severe refractory bleeding gastric and ectopic varices, cases where endoscopic techniques are less effective. Emergency TIPS should be considered early in patients with refractory variceal bleeding once medical treatment and sclerotherapy fail, before the clinical condition worsens. Every effort should be made to stabilize the patient before TIPS, including the use of tamponade tubes and aggressive correction of coagulopathy. Patients with acute variceal bleeding with a Child-Pugh score > 12, Apache score II > 18 points, hemodynamically unstable, receiving vasopressors and coagulopathy, and/or bilirrubin > 6 mg/dL have a high risk of early death after TIPS. Expedite liver transplantation after emergency TIPS should be considered for high-risk patients.
- Liver-interventional procedures
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine