To evaluate the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of central nervous system (CNS) recurrence in adult patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, we evaluated 605 newly diagnosed patients with large-cell and immunoblastic lymphoma who participated in prospective chemotherapy studies. The Kaplan- Meier estimate of probability of CNS recurrence at I year after diagnosis was 4.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4 to 4.6). Twenty-four patients developed CNS recurrence after a median of 6 months from diagnosis (range, 0 to 44 months). In univariate analysis, an increased risk for CNS recurrence was associated with an advanced disease stage (P = .0014), an increased LDH (P = .0000), the presence of B-symptoms (P = .0037), involvement of more than one extranodal site (P = .0000), poor performance status (P = .0005), and B- cell phenotype (P = .008). Bone marrow involvement (P = .005), involvement of parenchymal organs (P = .03), and involvement of skin, subcutaneous tissue, and muscle (P = .002) were also associated with an increased risk for CNS disease. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified only involvement of more than one extranodal site (P = .0005) and an increased LDH (P = .0008) as independent predictors of CNS recurrence. Established CNS recurrence had a poor prognosis. Only 1 of 24 patients remains alive and the Kaplan-Meier estimate of probability of survival at I year after the diagnosis of CNS recurrence is only 25.3% (95% CI, 6.9 to 43.7). Intrathecal treatment provided symptomatic benefit in only 1 of 6 patients. Radiation treatment provided symptomatic improvement in 6 of 9 patients treated. However, remissions were short and followed by systemic or CNS recurrence. Serum LDH and involvement of more than one extranodal site are independent risk factors for CNS recurrence in patients with large-cell lymphoma. The presence of both risk factors identifies a patient group at high risk for CNS recurrence. Established CNS recurrence can be rapidly fatal. Transient responses occur after radiation treatment.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology