Risk factor-based subphenotyping of heart failure in the community

Charlotte Andersson, Asya Lyass, Vanessa Xanthakis, Martin G. Larson, Gary F. Mitchell, Susan Cheng, Ramachandran S. Vasan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background Heart failure (HF) is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome with varying prognosis. Subphenotyping of HF is a research priority to advance our understanding of the syndrome. We formulated a subphenotyping schema and compared long-term mortality risk among the HF subphenotypes in the community-based Framingham Study. Methods and results In hierarchical order, we grouped participants with new-onset HF (stratified by HF with reduced [HFrEF] vs. preserved ejection fraction [HFpEF]) according to the presence of: (1) coronary heart disease (CHD), (2) metabolic syndrome (MetS), (3) hypertension, and (4) 'other' causes. Age at HF onset was lowest in people with the MetS (mean 76 vs. 77 years for HFrEF and HFpEF, respectively) and highest in those with hypertension only (mean 82 and 85 years for HFrEF and HFpEF, respectively). For HFrEF, 10-year cumulative mortality and hazards ratios [HR] were 87% for CHD (n = 219; referent group), 88% for MetS (n = 105; HR 0.95 [95% CI 0.73-1.23]), 82% for hypertension (n = 104; HR 0.71 [0.55-0.91]), and 78% for other (n = 37; HR 0.81 [0.55-1.19]). Corresponding 10-year cumulative mortality and HR data for HFpEF were: 85% for CHD (n = 84; referent), 83% for MetS (n = 118; HR 0.98 [0.72-1.33]), 81% for hypertension (n = 127; HR 0.71 [0.52-0.95]), and 76% for other (n = 43; HR 0.76 [0.50-1.14]). In a sample without overt heart failure (n = 5536), several echocardiographic and vascular indices showed graded worsening of age- and sex adjusted-values among those having CHD, MetS, hypertension, or obesity, compared with individuals not having these risk factors. Conclusions HF subphenotypes characterized by the presence of CHD or metabolic syndrome present at a younger age and are marked by greater mortality risk. The clinical utility of the proposed subphenotyping schema warrants further research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere0222886
JournalPloS one
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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