Rifapentine Population Pharmacokinetics and Dosing Recommendations for Latent Tuberculosis Infection

Jennifer E. Hibma, Kendra K. Radtke, Susan E. Dorman, Amina Jindani, Kelly E. Dooley, Marc Weiner, Helen M. McIlleron, Radojka M. Savic

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Rationale: Rifapentine has been investigated at various doses, frequencies, and dosing algorithms, but clarity on the optimal dosing approach is lacking.Objectives: To characterize rifapentine population pharmacokinetics, including autoinduction, and determine optimal dosing strategies for short-course rifapentine-based regimens for latent tuberculosis infection.Methods: Rifapentine pharmacokinetic studies were identified though a systematic review of literature. Individual plasma concentrations were pooled, and nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was performed. A subset of data was reserved for external validation. Simulations were performed under various dosing conditions, including current weight-based methods; and alternative methods driven by identified covariates.Measurements and Main Results: We identified nine clinical studies with a total of 863 participants with pharmacokinetic data (n = 4,301 plasma samples). Rifapentine population pharmacokinetics were described successfully with a one-compartment distribution model. Autoinduction of clearance was driven by rifapentine plasma concentrations. The maximum effect was a 72% increase in clearance and was reached after 21 days. Drug bioavailability decreased by 27% with HIV infection, decreased by 28% with fasting, and increased by 49% with a high-fat meal. Body weight was not a clinically relevant predictor of clearance. Pharmacokinetic simulations showed that current weight-based dosing leads to lower exposures in individuals with low weight, which can be overcome with flat dosing. In HIV-positive patients, 30% higher doses are required to match drug exposure in HIV-negative patients.Conclusions: Weight-based dosing of rifapentine should be removed from clinical guidelines, and higher doses for HIV-positive patients should be considered to provide equivalent efficacy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)866-877
Number of pages12
JournalAmerican Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Volume202
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 15 2020

Keywords

  • latent tuberculosis
  • population pharmacokinetics
  • rifamycins
  • rifapentine
  • tuberculosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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