Reward deficiency syndrome (Rds): A cytoarchitectural common neurobiological trait of all addictions

Kenneth Blum, Abdalla Bowirrat, Eric R. Braverman, David Baron, Jean Lud Cadet, Shan Kazmi, Igor Elman, Panyotis K. Thanos, Rajendra D. Badgaiyan, William B. Downs, Debasis Bagchi, Luis Llanos-Gomez, Mark S. Gold

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Alcohol and other substance use disorders share comorbidity with other RDS disorders, i.e. a reduction in dopamine signaling within the reward pathway. RDS is a term that connects addictive, obsessive, compulsive, and impulsive behavioral disorders. An estimated 2 million individuals in the United States have opioid use disorder related to prescription opioids. It is estimated that the overall cost of the illegal and legally prescribed opioid crisis exceeds one trillion dollars. Opioid Replacement Therapy is the most common treatment for addictions and other RDS disorders. Even after repeated relapses, patients are repeatedly prescribed the same opioid replacement treatments. A recent JAMA report indicates that non-opioid treatments fare better than chronic opioid treatments. Research demonstrates that over 50 percent of all suicides are related to alcohol or other drug use. In addition to effective fellowship programs and spirituality acceptance, nutrigenomic therapies (e.g., KB220Z) optimize gene expression, rebalance neurotransmitters, and restore neurotransmitter functional connectivity. KB220Z was shown to increase functional connectivity across specific brain regions involved in dopaminergic function. KB220/Z significantly reduces RDS behavioral disorders and relapse in human DUI offenders. Taking a Genetic Addiction Risk Severity (GARS) test combined with a the KB220Z semi-customized nutrigenomic supplement effectively restores dopamine homeostasis. (WC 199).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number11529
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number21
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021


  • Dopamine homeostasis
  • GARS
  • KB220
  • Neuroimaging
  • Precision addiction management
  • Reward deficiency syndrome (RDS)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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