Revisiting inflammation in bipolar disorder

Gabriel R. Fries, Consuelo Walss-Bass, Moises E. Bauer, Antonio L. Teixeira

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

100 Scopus citations


Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with immune changes, and yet their underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Here, we review the current state of the field, concerning the inflammatory alterations observed in the periphery and in the central nervous system, followed by a discussion of potential underlying mechanisms. We focus mainly on recently proposed mechanisms including the role of the gut-brain axis, the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), and the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. BD immunology is an evolving field and current studies indicate this disease is more than a brain disorder, and it can be conceptualized as a multi-system condition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12-19
Number of pages8
JournalPharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
StatePublished - Feb 2019


  • Bipolar disorder
  • Comorbidity
  • Cytokines
  • Immune system
  • Inflammation
  • Microbiota

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biological Psychiatry
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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