Holmium:YAG lithotripsy requires transmission of optical energy using laser fibers. Optical fibers may be subjected to severe angular deflection and bending during flexible nephroscopy or flexible ureteronephroscopy. Irradiation of a deflected fiber in a tight bending radius may produce fiber failure and consequent irradiation of the ureteroscope, with risk of instrument damage and patient injury. We review the physics and engineering aspects of optical fibers to explain why fibers fail.
ASJC Scopus subject areas