Response of MG63 osteoblast-like cells to titanium and titanium alloy is dependent on surface roughness and composition

J. Lincks, B. D. Boyan, C. R. Blanchard, C. H. Lohmann, Y. Liu, D. L. Cochran, D. D. Dean, Z. Schwartz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

580 Scopus citations

Abstract

The success of an implant is determined by its integration into the tissue surrounding the biomaterial. Surface roughness and composition are considered to influence the properties of adherent cells. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of chemical composition and surface roughness of commercially pure titanium (Ti) and Ti-6A1-4V alloy (Ti-A) on MG63 osteoblast-like cells. Unalloyed and alloyed Ti disks were machined and either fine-polished or wet-ground, resulting in smooth (S) and rough (R) finishes, respectively. Standard tissue culture plastic was used as a control. Surface topography and profile were evaluated by cold field emission scanning electron microscopy and profilometry, while chemical composition was determined using Auger electron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The effect on the cells was evaluated 24 h postconfluence by measuring cell number, [3H]-thymidine incorporation into DNA, cell and cell layer alkaline phosphatase specific activity (ALPase), osteocalcin and collagen production, [35S]-sulfate incorporation into proteoglycan, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production. When compared to plastic, the number of cells was reduced on the pure Ti surfaces, while it was equivalent on the Ti-A surfaces, [3H]-thymidine incorporation was reduced on all surfaces. The stimulatory effect of surface roughness on ALPase in isolated cells and the cell layer was more pronounced on the rougher surfaces, with enzyme activity on Ti-R being greater than on Ti-A-R. Osteocalcin production was increased only on the Ti-R surface. Collagen production was decreased on Ti surfaces except Ti-R; [35S]-sulfate incorporation was reduced on all surfaces. Surface roughness affected local factor production (TGF-β, PGE2). The stimulatory effect of the rougher surfaces on PGE2 and TGF-β was greater on Ti than Ti-A. In summary, cell proliferation, differentiation, protein synthesis and local factor production were affected by surface roughness and composition. Enhanced differentiation of cells grown on rough vs. smooth surfaces for both Ti and Ti-A surfaces was indicated by decreased proliferation and increased ALPase and osteocalcin production. Local factor production was also enhanced on rough surfaces, supporting the contention that these cells are more differentiated. Surface composition also played a role in cell differentiation, since cells cultured on Ti-R surfaces produced more ALPase than those cultured on Ti-A-R. While it is still unknown which material properties induce which cellular responses, this study suggests that surface roughness and composition may play a major role and that the best design for an orthopaedic implant is a pure titanium surface with a rough microtopography.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2219-2232
Number of pages14
JournalBiomaterials
Volume19
Issue number23
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1998

Keywords

  • In vitro
  • Osteoblasts
  • PGE
  • Surface roughness
  • TGF-(β)
  • Titanium
  • Titanium alloy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biophysics
  • Biomaterials
  • Mechanics of Materials

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