Resolving macrophage polarization through distinct Ca2+ entry channel that maintains intracellular signaling and mitochondrial bioenergetics

Viviane Nascimento Da Conceicao, Yuyang Sun, Karthik Ramachandran, Arun Chauhan, Amritha Raveendran, Manigandan Venkatesan, Bony DeKumar, Soumya Maity, Neelanjan Vishnu, George A. Kotsakis, Paul F. Worley, Donald L. Gill, Bibhuti B. Mishra, Muniswamy Madesh, Brij B. Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Transformation of naive macrophages into classically (M1) or alternatively (M2) activated macrophages regulates the inflammatory response. Here, we identified that distinct Ca2+ entry channels determine the IFNγ-induced M1 or IL-4-induced M2 transition. Naive or M2 macrophages exhibit a robust Ca2+ entry that was dependent on Orai1 channels, whereas the M1 phenotype showed a non-selective TRPC1 current. Blockade of Ca2+ entry suppresses pNF-κB/pJNK/STAT1 or STAT6 signaling events and consequently lowers cytokine production that is essential for M1 or M2 functions. Of importance, LPS stimulation shifted M2 cells from Orai1 toward TRPC1-mediated Ca2+ entry and TRPC1−/− mice exhibited transcriptional changes that suppress pro-inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, Orai1−/− macrophages showed a decrease in anti-inflammatory cytokines and exhibited a suppression of mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate and inhibited mitochondrial shape transition specifically in the M2 cells. Finally, alterations in TRPC1 or Orai1 expression determine macrophage polarization suggesting a distinct role of Ca2+ channels in modulating macrophage transformation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number103339
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 19 2021


  • Immune system
  • Molecular biology
  • Molecular network

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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