Residual lifetime risk for developing hypertension in middle-aged women and men: The Framingham Heart Study

Ramachandran S. Vasan, Alexa Beiser, Sudha Seshadri, Martin G. Larson, William B. Kannel, Ralph B. D'Agostino, Daniel Levy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

998 Scopus citations

Abstract

Context: The long-term risk for developing hypertension is best described by the lifetime risk statistic. The lifetime risk for hypertension and trends in this risk over time are unknown. Objectives: To estimate the residual lifetime risk for hypertension in older US adults and to evaluate temporal trends in this risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: Community-based prospective cohort study of 1298 participants from the Framingham Heart Study who were aged 55 to 65 years and free of hypertension at baseline (1976-1998). Main Outcome Measures: Residual lifetime risk (lifetime cumulative incidence not adjusted for competing causes of mortality) for hypertension, defined as blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or greater or use of antihypertensive medications. Results: The residual lifetime risks for developing hypertension and stage 1 high blood pressure or higher (≥140/90 mm Hg regardless of treatment) were 90% in both 55 and 65-year-old participants. The lifetime probability of receiving antihypertensive medication was 60%. The risk for hypertension remained unchanged for women, but it was approximately 60% higher for men in the contemporary 1976-1998 period compared with an earlier 1952-1975 period. In contrast, the residual lifetime risk for stage 2 high blood pressure or higher (≥160/100 mm Hg regardless of treatment) was considerably lower in both sexes in the recent period (35%-57% in 1952-1975 vs 35%-44% in 1976-1998), likely due to a marked increase in treatment of individuals with substantially elevated blood pressure. Conclusion: The residual lifetime risk for hypertension for middle-aged and elderly individuals is 90%, indicating a huge public health burden. Although the decline in lifetime risk for stage 2 high blood pressure or higher represents a major achievement, efforts should be directed at the primary prevention of hypertension.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1003-1010
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the American Medical Association
Volume287
Issue number8
StatePublished - Feb 27 2002
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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