We present two children - one, 47,XY,+mar, and the other, 47,XY,+21. Both fathers were found to have a 47,XYY chromosome constitution. The initial assumption was that the fathers' aneuploid conditions contributed to those of the offspring. However, the derivation of the marker chromosome could be paternal, maternal, or postzygotic, and examination of polymorphic structures of the number 21 chromosomes of the child with Down syndrome and his parents suggested maternal derivation of the supernumerary 21. To explore further the reproductive risks of an individual with the XYY constitution, previous reports of reproductive performance and testicular histology are examined as are two theories which suggest XYY males may be at an increased risk of producing aneuploid progeny. Based on these reports, recommendations are made for testing XYY males prior to genetic counseling.
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