To investigate the mechanism underlying one aspect of the cellular tropism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), we used a macrophage-tropic isolate, 89.6, and screened its ability to infect a number of continuous cell lines. HIV-1(89.6) was able to replicate robustly in a T-cell/B-cell hybrid line, CEMx174, while it replicated modestly or not at all in either of its parents, one of which is the CD4-positive line CEM.3. Analysis by transfection of a molecular clone, a virus uptake assay, and polymerase chain reaction all provided strong evidence that the block to HIV-1(89.6) replication in the CEM.3 line lies at the level of cellular entry. These results were complemented by preparing a CD4-expressing derivative of the B- cell parent, 721.174, and demonstrating that it is permissive for productive HIV-1(89.6) replication. Given these experimental findings, we speculate that there exist cellular accessory factors which facilitate virus entry and infection in CD4-positive cells. Furthermore, these cellular accessory factors may be quite virus strain specific, since not all macrophage-tropic strains of HIV-1 were able to replicate in the CEMx174 hybrid cell line. This experimental model provides a system for the identification of one or more of these putative cellular accessory factors.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science